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Predictive Reliability Assessment and Failure Rate Models for Electronic Packages
Keywords: package, reliability models, failure mechanism
Today’s package technology evaluation process will not characterize the failure mechanisms as well failure rates very well, in most of the cases, the failure rate was not well correlated to the field application. Package technologies were typically certified using standard accelerated stress tests, such as those found in MIL-883 or JEDEC standards. The test conditions and durations are based on effective field lifetime, assumed acceleration factors, or the recommendations from the specifications. However, the testing was not designed to generate failure, instead, the desired testing results were zero failures. This approach gave very little insights into the failure mechanisms and failure rates in the field as well intrinsic lifetime of the technology. A new physics-based approach for package reliability testing and intrinsic lifetime prediction will be discussed in this paper. Intrinsic reliability modeling approach for electronics packages would yield a complete reliability model, including the acceleration factor, lifetime projections at operating conditions and failure rate correlations to process factors. The models will be more objective and help response to rapidly developing market demands and quick estimation of package field life under various application conditions. In this paper, case studies of the reliability tests demonstrated the needs for the new physics based packaging technology qualification approach. The studies showed the disadvantage of the traditional reliability testing approach and needs of today’s requirements for low cost, quick-to-market and specialized applications. Additionally, it pointed out that failures were often happened randomly at a constant failure rate, even they supposed to be worn-out failures. The failure data also showed key failure mechanisms were often defect driven, and seldom showed increasing failure rate during the test duration. More studies will be carried out in the future to build the data base needed for package reliability model predictions. KEYWORDS: Package, reliability, reliability models, accelerated testing, failure rate, failure mechanisms, use condition.
Liyu Yang, Senior Packaging Reliability Engineer
Freescale Semiconductor Inc.
Chandler, AZ

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