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A Simple Test-Data-Driven Lead-Free Solder Joint Fatigue Life Prediction Model
Keywords: lead-free solder, reliability, solder joint fatigue
As the electronic industry focused on eliminating lead (Pb) from the product manufacturing processes to meet the EU RoHS Directive, numerous extensive studies on lead-free interconnect reliability have been published. In this paper, a simply prediction model on lead-free solder joint fatigue life is presented. The model is derived from a statistical analysis of the current available lead-free reliability test data to identify the most/major significant factors that impact the solder joint reliability and weather or not there are critical areas that need to be investigated immediately. Based on more than 200 test data points from publications and internal qualification tests that cover a wide range of package types (CBGA, PBGA, TBGA, etc), most commonly used lead-free solder compositions (SAC, SnAg, etc), different assembly processes (lead-free or backward compatible), and most industry standard accelerated test conditions, this analysis lead to a simple predictive model that predicts solder joint fatigue life matched the actual test results very well. Among the major attributes that affect the Pb-free solder joint fatigue life, this analysis identifies the high temperature dwell time and the temperature range of thermal cycling, die thickness, PCB thickness, and surface mount configuration as the most significant dominant factors for organic packages but the maximum temperature and the ramp rate of thermal cycling, package body size, substrate thickness, and BGA diameter as the most significant factors for ceramic packages.
Weidong Xie, Manufacturing Engineer
Cisco Systems, Inc.
San Jose, CA


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