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Prognostication for Impending Failure in Leadfree Electronics Subjected to Shock and Vibration Using Resistance Spectroscopy
Keywords: Prognostics, Condition Monitoring, Reliability
In this paper, the high-frequency characteristics, and system transfer function based on resistance spectroscopy measurements have been correlated with the damage progression in electronics during shock and vibration. Packages being examined include ceramic area-array packages. Second level interconnect technologies examined include plastic-core solder ball, copper-reinforced solder column, SAC305 solder ball, and 90Pb10Sn high-lead solder ball. Assemblies have been subjected to 1500g, 0.5 ms pulse [JESD-B2111]. Continuity has been monitored in-situ during the shock test for identification of part-failure. Resistance spectroscopy based damage pre-cursors have been correlated with the optically measured transient strain based feature vectors. High speed cameras have been used to capture the transient strain histories during shock-impact. Statistical pattern recognition techniques have been used to identify damage initiation and progression and determine the statistical significance in variance between healthy and damaged assemblies. Models for healthy and damaged packages have been developed based on package characteristics. Leading indicators of failure have been developed based on high-frequency characteristics, and system-transfer function based on resistance spectroscopy measurements during shock and vibration. The technique is intended for condition monitoring in high reliability applications where the knowledge of impending failure is critical and the risks in terms of loss-of-functionality are too high to bear. Data presented shows that high-frequency characteristics and system-transfer characteristics based on resistance spectroscopy measurements can be used for condition-monitoring, damage initiation and progression in electronic systems. A positive prognostic distance has been demonstrated for each of the interconnect technologies tested. The presented technique is different from prior damage diagnosis methodologies. Damage diagnosis in high-reliability applications has relied on the built in self test (BIST) to monitor for failure [Steininger00, Harris02, Hashempour04, Suthar06], but the current version of BIST approach is focused on reactive failure detection and provides limited insight in to solder joint reliability and residual life. Previously, damage initiation and progression and compute residual life in the pre-failure space has been correlated with the feature vectors based on time, spectral and joint time-frequency characteristics.
Pradeep Lall, Thomas Walter Professor and Director
Auburn University
Auburn, AL

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