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|Critical Issues of 3D High-Performance IC Integrations|
|Keywords: 3D high-performance interconnects, TSV, Microbumps|
|Moore's law has been the most powerful driver for the development of the microelectronic industry. This law emphasizes on lithography scaling and integration (in 2D) of all functions on a single chip, perhaps through system-on-chip (SoC). On the other hand, the integration of all these functions can be achieved through system-in-package (SiP) or, ultimately, 3D IC integration. There are many critical issues of 3D IC integration, especially for 3D high-performance interconnects, e.g., design guidelines & softwares are not commonly available; test methods and equipments are lacking; known-good-die (KGD) are required; fast chips mixed with slow chips; large chips mixed with small chips; microbumps usually are required; equipment accuracy for alignments; wafer thinning and thin wafer handling during processes; thermal management issues; 3D inspection issues; 3D expertises, infrastructure, and standards are lucking; TSVs usually are required for 3D high-performance interconnects; TSV cost is higher than wirebonding; TSV high-volume production tools are lacking/expensive; TSV design guidelines are not commonly available; TSV design softwares are lacking; TSV technology usually requires microbumps; test methodology and softwares of TSV are lacking; copper filling helps on thermal but increases TCE (thermal coefficient of expansion); copper filling takes a long time (low throughputs); the tough requirements of TSV wafer yields (>99.8%) due to the large number of vias; TSV wafer warpage due to TCE mismatch; thin TSV wafer handling during all the processes; TSV with high aspect ratios are difficult to manufacture at high yield; TSV inspection methodology; TSV expertises, infrastructure, and standards are lucking. In this paper, most of the critical issues of 3D high-performance interconnects will be discussed and some potential solutions or research problems will be proposed.|
|John H. Lau, Visiting Professor
Kowloon, Hong Kong 123456,