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Modeling and Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Distribution in Vicinity of Patch Antennas at Millimeter-Wave Frequencies
Keywords: Patch antenna, Integration, millimeter-wave
Recently, much research has focused on the millimeter-wave frequency range for high-speed short-range communication applications (e.g., WPAN). At these high frequencies integrated antennas are physically small structures allowing a high degree of system miniaturization. To date, many planar antenna designs comprising patch, dipole and slot configurations have been demonstrated for millimeter-wave applications. However, achieving high integration densities entails compact placement of package/board components together with the antenna. This gives rise to undesired coupling potentially jeopardizing electromagnetic reliability (EMR) if not dealt with in the design phase. Surface waves, excited by planar antennas in the substrate, are considered a primary cause for undesired coupling at millimeter-wave frequencies. Consequently, configurations for surface wave suppression (e.g., EBG structures) have been proposed. However, shielding configurations are space consuming. In order to utilize the available package/board space efficiently, it is of importance to determine whether additional shielding is required and where in the vicinity of the antenna components can be safely placed. Therefore, in this contribution the spatial electromagnetic field distribution in the vicinity of patch antennas, excited with the fundamental TM resonance mode, is analyzed. Based on the field distribution, critical regions with potential high coupling to a victim are identified. The coupling mechanisms are split up into near-field (capacitive and inductive) and far-field (space and surface waves) coupling. It is shown that inductive coupling is most critical at the non-radiating apertures and capacitive coupling at the radiating aperture of the antenna up to a distance of ~0.17 lamda and ~0.07 lamda from the patch edges, respectively. On the other hand, surface wave coupling dominates beyond a distance of ~0.2 lamda in the direction normal to the radiating apertures. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to determine whether additional shielding is required. Furthermore, package/board components can be systematically placed (position and orientation) in the vicinity of the patch antenna.
Florian Ohnimus, Research Engineer
Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration, IZM
Berlin 13355,

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