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Flip Chip for Millimeter Wave Applications
Keywords: Flip Chip, 60 Ghz, Stud Bump
Wireless systems have significantly increased in both number and types of applications during the last decade. New applications are creating more wireless demand, and higher bandwidth requirements are putting pressure on the currently used wireless systems and radio spectrum allocations. Data rates now exceed 1Gb/s. The U.S. 60 GHz unlicensed spectrum extends from 57 GHz to 64 GHz, resulting in a maximum bandwidth of 7 GHz. Hence the ability to solve greater bandwidth demand is found by exploiting the millimeter wave frequency bands. However, transmission in the 60 GHz band does not come without disadvantages, including difficulty transferring the 60 GHz energy on and off the semiconductor die. Traditionally, the most common bonding interface from the die to the transmission line and/or antenna is accomplished with bond wire. At microwave and millimeter frequencies, however, wire bonding tends to introduce more inductive and stray capacitive losses. While multiple wire or ribbon bonds are usually used to mitigate this effect, an alternative stud bumping process decreases the losses even further and prevents unwanted radiation. The procedure of stud bumping to the pads of the die, followed with a thermosonic or thermocompression flip chip process, is used to bond the die to metallization on the transmission line/antenna substrate. This paper examines the pros and cons of stud bumps compared with standard wire and ribbon bonding at millimeter wave frequencies.
James Bardeen, Engineer
VubIQ Inc.
Aliso Viejo, CA

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