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Advances in Wafer Bonding Techniques Enabling Vertical Integration
Keywords: TSV integration, chip-to-wafer bonding, wafer-to-wafer bonding
For the majority of wafer-level 3D integration or TSV integration, full wafers of a specific function (e.g., processors, DSPs, SRAM, DRAM, and embedded wireless network) are produced separately and then stacked vertically via chip-to-wafer or wafer-to-wafer bonding in order to create a multi-functional device. All envisioned process flows for 3D integration on wafer level contain wafer bonding as a key step. Over the last two decades, various bonding methods have been developed and implemented for volume production. Due mainly to the thermal budget issue of CMOS devices, bonding processes compatible with CMOS processing are limited to metal bonding (Cu-Cu or Cu-solder-Cu), low-temperature direct oxide bonding, polymer adhesive bonding, and several hybrids of those methods. Patterned metal thermo-compression bonding is one of the most explored bonding methods for TSV integration because it can facilitate fine-pitch, high-density stacking of various devices leading to lower electrical resistance and higher mechanical strength. One of the major advantages of direct oxide bonding method is that pre-bonding (i.e., wafer contact and hydrogen bonds formation) occurs at room temperature, so a run-out error in alignment can not be induced during bonding and thus the achievable post-bond alignment accuracy is better than that with any high temperature bonding methods. The main advantages of adhesive bonding include the low bonding temperature (200 – 300 C depending upon polymer materials) compared to metal bonding, the tolerance to the topography or conditions of wafer surfaces, the compatibility with standard CMOS wafers, and the ability to join any wafer materials. All details in unique characteristics of those three bonding methods, such as advantages and demerits of each process, post-bond alignment accuracy, process time, and throughput, will be presented at the conference.
Bioh Kim, Global Business Development Manager
EV Group
Tempe, AZ

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