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Electrical Analysis and Modeling of 3D Through-Strata-Via (TSV) and Pads
Keywords: Through-Strata-Vias (TSVs), Pads, 3D integration
This paper reports the electrical analysis and modeling of through-strata-via (TSV) structures associated with pads in both the time domain and frequency domain. TSV is one of the key elements in 3D integration. It offers a massive number of short interstrata connects in a 3D integrated system; therefore, high data bandwidth, reduced delay and power consumption, small footprint, improved yield, heterogeneous integration and reduced volume-production cost are expected. In the transient analysis, signal delay and ringing are rarely observed along the TSV and its pads. The eye contour gives a fairly clean pattern in the range up to 20 Gbps studied, representing little inter-symbol-interference of channel. A 3D bathtub plot shows very low bit error rates (~10e-16) at various locations of either amplitude or unit interval. The small jitter and large noise margin suggest a good signal quality under very high speed operations, even in the absence of equalization. In the frequency domain, the performances among different TSV and pad combinations are compared. The set of circular TSV and circular pad offers the best performance. A misalignment (due to the process variation) between TSV and pad can affect the TSV frequency response if the TSV is off the pad. A big pad size degrades performance and decreases trace density, while a thinner pad would enhance process throughput and reduce cost. Rather than using multiple small TSVs connecting to a common pad, it is better to implement one single big TSV in that less parasitics and coupling present. Furthermore, TSV component has been carefully modeled. The results from electromagnetic simulation and broadband SPICE model are in a good agreement. In summary, the analysis and modeling on electrical characteristics of TSV and pad can help and improve the design of 3D integration based on TSV technology.
Zheng Xu, Student
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, NY
USA


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