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Analysis and Control of Interface Reactions in Microelectronic Systems
Keywords: Interface reactions, diffusion pathway, kinetics
Multilayer, multicomponent architectures are ubiquitous in microelectronic systems over size scales ranging from microns to nanometers. During device fabrication and use reactions at component interfaces often occur and lead to both beneficial and deleterious product phases with associated volume changes and stress development as well as possible void formation. The analysis of the reactions is an essential component in developing strategies for reaction control. An effective approach for the analysis of interface reactions is presented based upon the interpretation of the interface microstructure evolution in terms of the operative multicomponent diffusion pathway where the influence of initially steep concentration gradients is included in the examination of reaction phase sequencing. From the established diffusion pathway a novel kinetic biasing approach can be devised as a robust means to engineer thermodynamic and mechanical compatibility including the development of an in-situ diffusion barrier. The degree of kinetic control can be augmented further by means of tailoring the diffusion pathways to establish the preferred interfacial reaction sequences. Furthermore, the extent of the interfacial control can be utilized to limit the formation of undesired interfacial reactions. For example, the introduction of a sacrificial layer to alter the diffusion pathways has been shown to be quite successful in minimizing the unwanted interfacial products. A similar concept can be applied in other areas including metallization process and under bump metallurgy for example where there is a potential thermodynamic driving force to yield excessive interfacial reactions. The analysis and control concepts are illustrated with examples from low temperature bonding and high temperature SiC applications.
J. H. Perepezko, Professor
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, WI
USA


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