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Suppression of Kirkendall Voiding in Sn-3.5Ag/Cu Solder Joints by Pre-Annealing Process
Keywords: Solder, Kirkendall voids, Reliability
In this study, electroplated Cu films were pre-annealed at T (T = 673, 773, 873 K) for varying times. Sn-3.5Ag solder reflowed over the Cu films and subsequently aged at 150°C for 240 hrs. Effects of pre-annealing on the microstructure of Cu films, as well as contents of organic impurities incorporated in the Cu films were investigated. After solder reflow, the formation of Kirkendall voids at Cu3Sn/Cu interface was observed from SEM micrographs. S segregation, the main reason of Kirkendall voiding, to Cu3Sn/Cu interface was analyzed by in-situ AES analysis. Results show that the pre-annealing process significantly suppressed Kirkendall void formation in the Sn-3.5Ag/Cu solder joints. A line fraction of voids at the Cu3Sn/Cu interface was definitely suppressed in the case of 500°C and 600°C pre-annealed samples compared to as-deposited Cu sample. SIMS analyses revealed that pre-annealing reduced the level of impurities in the Cu films, especially S and C. The mechanism of suppressing Kirkendall voids at the Cu3Sn/Cu interface was presented by schematic diagram, and it could be seen that pre-annealing method has a potential to enhance solder joint reliability.
Sunghwan Kim, Graduate Student
Daejeon 305-701,
Republic of Korea

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