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Reliability Strategies for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Portable Electronic Systems
Keywords: Lithium ion battery , reliability , State of health
The functionally and reliability of portable microelectronics systems is often limited by the ability of the power supply to provide a continuous source of energy. In most modern portable applications, lithium ion, and lithium polymer batteries have become the choice energy storage system. The selection of these batteries stems from their high volumetric and gravimetric energy densities and their ability to be scaled up or down to fit the needs of a dynamic range of different systems from automobiles to active RFID tags and wireless sensors. Performance of these batteries is heavily dictated by their usage conditions including, the current rate of charge and discharge, the operating temperature, the imposed voltage limits, and the shelf life. In order to optimize the performance of portable electronic systems, the user must know the state of charge (SOC) of the battery so that periods of recharge can be anticipated and scheduled. The user must also know the state of health (SOH) of the battery in order to plan for the replacement of the battery. The hardware and software requirements of determining SOC and SOH for portable applications without the need for specialized equipment (namely the use of impedance spectroscopy) are discussed. Strategies for prolonging battery life, such as storage conditions, limitations on current rate, and voltage limitations are given. Battery lifetime is discussed in the context of number of cycles, total operation time, and total current output and how each one of these views can lead to misleading interpretations of battery reliability specifications.
Nicholas Williard , Graduate Student
University of Maryland - CALCE
College Park , Maryland
USA


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