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Keywords: System - On - Package (SOP), microminiaturization, non-uniform
As the importance of acquiring in-depth knowledge in electronic system thermal characteristics has grown, the need for making proper thermal measurements following approved standardizes methods has become paramount. This paper reviews and analyses the various methods of thermal management in System on Package (SOP)-based systems for electronic packages. A wide literature review is done on these thermal management methods with the purpose of synchronizing and categorizing in order to ascertain which method best fits a particular application. Development in the electronics industry has come a long way from nascent low performing devices to advanced devices with high computational speed and power. The advancement in the industry has led to an exponential increase in power densities, which in turn drove the innovation of smarter and smaller products. Thermal management is essential in electronics, as it improves reliability and enhances performance by removing heat generated by the devices. The impact of this high flux is exacerbated by the relatively low thermal conductivity of the organic materials in SOP packaging. Mega-functionality, microminiaturization, multiple length scale hierarchy, multiple-functional materials, and embedded thin-film active and passive components are the essential features of SOP systems. These result in non-uniform and highly concentrated volumetric heat generation produced by a number of power sources that include not only active ICs such as microprocessors, power amplifiers, and memory devices but also passive components such as resistors. While SOP miniaturization results in an improvement in electrical performance, cost, and some aspects of reliability, it presents unprecedented thermal challenges making the total heat flux densities at the system level very close to the device level, unlike in the current approach of discrete component-based systems. The thermal via, heat sink heat pipe, liquid cooling, refrigeration systems and thermoelectric methods were reviewed. Their mechanisms for relieving the system of heat are discussed. Their effectiveness with respect to how best they contribute to high thermal management in systems were compared and their limits established.
Edwin Okoampa Boadu, Student
School of Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics
Chengdu, Sichuan Province

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