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Numerical Simulation of Copper Migration in Single Crystal CdTe
Keywords: Cadmium Telluride, Copper, Numerical Simulation
With better CdTe material properties and more effective contacts, the compensated Cu doping is crucial for enhancing the performance of CdTe solar cells. Moreover, the metastable behavior of CdTe devices is associated with Cu migration. To understand the formation of Cu acceptors in CdTe and Cu-related metastabilities, we developed a one-dimensional diffusion-reaction simulator to study the kinetics of Cu-related defects in CdTe material. A detailed kinetic model that explicitly describes the evolutions of point defects was developed and applied for the first time. Migration of intrinsic and Cu-related extrinsic defects in single crystal CdTe (sx-CdTe) bulk has been investigated in time-space domain self-consistently with free carrier transport. Cu profiles achieved from simulations match with the experimental profiles quantitatively. The simulation results provide explanations of limited Cu incorporation (also known as the Cu solubility limits) and the development of Cu compensation in course of annealing and cooling processes. Although the one-dimensional simulation has intrinsic limitations when applied to poly-crystalline CdTe solar cells, the results suggest that the approach still has strong potential in better understanding the performance and the metastabilities of poly-crystalline CdTe photovoltaic devices.
Da Guo, PhD student
Arizona State University
Tempe, Arizona

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