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Investigations in Selective Laser Melting as Manufacturing Technology for the Production of High-temperature Substrates
Keywords: Selective Laser Melting, System Integration, Substrate Packaging
The steady increase in functional integration together with the miniaturization of the components and system integration, leads to high power densities and requires effective thermal management concepts. In technologies like power electronics, where the temperature rise to more than 200 degC with high switching frequencies and power densities, the chip-level to board-level/ system-level integration needs optimization for high temperature stability. Proper temperature control of the junction temperatures can enable increased operational efficiency while simultaneously extending the semiconductor lifetime. Herein, we describe novel approaches in the system integration possibilities that incorporate additive manufacturing technologies and architectures aimed at increasing the system efficiency and reduction of the thermal resistance between the semiconductor junction and ambient environment. Additive manufacturing, a synonym for 3D Printing opens innovative and cost-effective manufacturing concepts in the development of advanced and compact modules. This possesses enormous potential for technological innovation with electrical and mechanical functional integration leading to robust and reliable mechatronic integrated devices (MID). With growing markets in area of automotive electronics, telecommunications, domestic appliances and medical equipment, recent advances make these devices possible for integration into various technologies. In this paper, the additive manufacturing technology 'Selective Laser Melting (SLM)' is used to create innovative module concepts for high temperature operation. This paper introduces a new substrate technology consisting of a ceramic base with additively constructed copper thermal and electrical patterns. The patterns generated by the laser melting of printed copper based powder have excellent thermal and electrical conductivities. The 2.5D active patterns on the ceramic base act as the electrical interconnect and the passive patterns act as thermal interconnect for efficient heat extraction directly from the bottom of the semiconductor die. The customizable system integration with excellent thermal management together with weight reduction and design flexibility makes it innovative and a dominant concept for various market segments. The concept of ‘Design to Product’ can be implemented and a high 3D geometry and design freedom can be obtained. The SLM process is suitable for rapid prototyping with enormous time, cost and material savings. The additive manufacturing technique for metals namely SLM was demonstrated as a functionalization concept for creating conductive traces on ceramic substrates, which is not yet possible through the state-of-the-art functionalization technologies. The stable process window with parameter combination for the production of metal-ceramic joints and full-melting process of Cu powders on ceramic base are demonstrated and discussed. Current carrying capacity, metallographical analysis, shear and End-of-life tests were performed to evaluate the properties of the SLM constructed patterns. Current carrying capabilities of upto 17A at 250degC were achieved and shear strengths of 32 - 36MPa were observed in ceramic-copper interconnects. The failure modes for the patterns are mainly discussed. Demonstrators for lighting technologies with high power LEDs and for drive technologies half bridge rectifier modules were built and tested for Proof-of-Concept. This work contributes to the future vision of the production of mechatronic integrated devices completely through AM techniques mainly SLM/ SLS in serial production lines. A profound understanding of value creation for the product is essential for further optimization and transformation into mechatronic integrated devices.
Aarief Syed-Khaja,
Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute FAPS
Nuremberg, Bavaria

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