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Effective Chemical Shrinkage and Viscoelastic Properties of Advanced Polymer Materials: Their Effect on Residual Stress and Warpage
Keywords: Epoxy Molding Compound , Chemical Shrinkage , Visco-elastic Properties
Epoxy molding compounds (EMCs) are involved in almost every aspect of semiconductor packaging and thus their mechanical and thermal properties have become an integral part of package design and reliability assessment. The critical properties include but not limited to: (1) chemical shrinkage and modulus evolution during curing, (2) time and temperature dependent mechanical properties, (3) glass transition temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion, (4) hygroscopic properties (moisture diffusivity and solubility), (5) thermal properties (conductivity and diffusivity), (6) adhesion strength and interfacial fracture toughness, and (7) aging and degradation rates due to environmental conditions. The testing methods to characterize the properties have been developed for many decades and some of them are routinely practiced using commercially available instruments such as the thermo-mechanical Analyzer (TMA), the dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), the digital scanning calorimeter (DSC), the universal testing machine (UTM), etc. As the new concepts of packaging technologies are developed, advanced EMCs and build-up materials are introduced almost every day, but less time is allowed to characterize them for predictive modeling due to the shrinking product development cycle time. Among the critical properties, this paper will address the effective chemical shrinkage and the temperature and time-dependent mechanical behavior, which are the most critical parameters to accurate prediction of the residual stress and warpage of advanced packages such as wafer level packaging, wafer stacking, embedded packaging, 3-D packaging, etc. The existing testing and modeling strategies are reviewed first to address several technical issues associated with the assumptions and simplifications that are not applicable to advanced polymer materials. Then advanced testing schemes and modeling strategies are presented to discuss how to cope with the challenges.
Bongtae Han, Professor
University of Maryland
College Park, Maryland
USA


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