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|A 300°C HIGH RELIABILITY HALT/HAST SCREENING/SORTING PROCEDURE FOR CERAMIC CAPACITORS|
|Keywords: Ceramic Capacitor MLCC, High Reliability Sorting Procedure, Model|
|A highly accelerated life test (HALT) and highly accelerated stress test (HAST) procedure for ceramic capacitors developed by the author in the mid 1980's, and published in 1994, consists of a 400 Volt biased six (6) hour stress sort at 150°C (423K), a methanol current leakage test that locates mechanical cracks, a visual inspection at ten times (10X) magnification, and a capacitance and dissipation measurement before and after the test. In over thirty (30) years of use, there has never been a user reported in-circuit failure in industrial, military, and aerospace applications at temperatures as high as 500°C (773K). However, reviewing user feedback, two concerns with the original sorting procedure is the stress is performed at 150°C (423K), and the lack of a more detailed ceramic capacitor model. To address the first, the low aging temperature, the stress temperature was increased from 150°C to 300°C, in order to age ceramic solid state crystal effects that may change with temperature. The test results for X7R and NPO/COG multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) and porcelain capacitors at 300°C, are compared to the test results using the original HALT/HAST procedure at 150°C. Further, a more detailed ceramic capacitor model that represents both the physical and electrical characteristics of the ceramic capacitors is presented, including the electrical current leakage effects with temperature and the residue effects from the firing manufacturing process.|
|Harold L. Snyder, jr., Sr. Scientist, Consultant, & President