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|Physical and Application Characteristics of Core-Shell Conductive Materials for LTCC in 5G Technology|
|Keywords: core-shell, 5G, reliability|
|Design requirement expectations for 5G anticipate 20 Gbps download and 10 Gbps upload capacities, an ~20x improvement over 4G, as well as mobility support up to 500 km/h, 1 ms user plane latency, support for ~1 million devices per square kilometer, and a bandwidth of up to 1 GHz from a variety of radio carriers. 5G is looking to a wide range of spectrum options including very high frequency bandwidth above 6 GHz and unlicensed bands to increase capacity. However, these high frequencies don’t travel far or penetrate barriers as well as lower frequency bands (which are use- constrained). To address this, 5G networks will combine short, medium, and long distance coverage to increase capacity and build short range stations constructed from densely packed antenna arrays. Material demands for high frequency antennas will require not only the high reliability of legacy t/r, but also meet the new high frequency requirements as well as device densification and reduced material costs. This paper presents material solutions for the high cost, high reliability, legacy material sets, such as gold and silvers, using core- shell conductive engineered powders and flakes. This work summarizes the efforts to synthesize core-shell structures for replacement of other pure conductive (legacy) materials used in LTCC substrates while maintaining equivalent or better performance and reliability. Particulate microstructure is examined to reveal the uniformity and continuity of the core-shell constructions. In the specific case of gold coated core- shell structures, the detailed microstructure of core diffusion is examined to understand diffusion sequestering after a simple conductive circuit undergoes high power density cycling.|
|Richard Stephenson, COO