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Advanced barrier and seed layer deposition enabling multiple type of TSVs integration
Keywords: TSV Integration, advanced barrier, seed layer deposition
TSV integration is a key technology allowing heterogeneous devices 3D integration. However, depending on the targeted application, various TSV sizes and integration schemes exist, all requesting very high aspect ratio. The most common integration is the Mid-process TSV for which aspect ratio is required to be higher than 10:1 whatever application. In the case of large interposers, silicon thickness has to be increased to limit the deformation of the substrate due to highly stressed devices. Same requirements are made by photonic interposers which use thick SOI substrate leading to high warpage during integration. In the opposite, imagers requires to save silicon surface thus reduce TSV size and keep out zone. Silicon thickness has to be kept in the 100µm range leading then the aspect ratio of the TSV to increase. Recently, Hybrid bonding progresses allowed a new type of TSV to be introduced : High Density TSVs for imagers. In this application, micrometer range TSV have to be filled with a Silicon thickness reduction limited to 10µm by grinding process control. In order to allow the metal filling of all those type of structures, we have developed a highly conformal barrier and seed layer processes using standard materials for easier integration. The process is based on the use of MOCVD TiN as a barrier. This material is deposited using TDMAT precursor which allows low temperature deposition (200°C)[1] which extends also the polyvalence of the process toward polymer bonded integrations. The very high step coverage of this process, reported at more than 30% in 20:1 aspect ratio coupled to high resistance to copper diffusion allows as thin as 20 nm barrier thickness which appears relevant economically (for deposition and CMP) and for stress consideration, compared to the well known but thicker PVD TaN process. Considering seed layer, the eG3D process[2] was brought to a high maturity allowing it to be integrated in an applied material raider tool coupled to TSV filling reactors. This process, based on electrografting of copper has already proved a step coverage of more than 50% in 12:1 aspect ratio structures. The presented work shows that the same process requires only deposition parameters change to be able to fully cover 10x150µm Mid-process TSV as well as 1x10 µm High density ones. The excellent step coverage of this process allowed as thin as 200 nm (for 10x120µm TSVs) and 100 nm (for (1x10µm ones) deposited thicknesses to ensure perfect coverage of the structures. eG3D process also has the ability to be used as a repair process for non-continuous widely used PVD Cu seed layers but also be deposited directly on the barrier material. These 2 layers were evaluated together in a 300mm TSV integration schemes of both 10x120 mid process and 1x10 µm High Density structures and qualified electrically. The paper will discuss the deposition process development leading to simultaneously allow copper filling of the very wide range of TSVs on the same process equipment and using the same chemicals. We will then present integration results as well as electrical test of TSV daisy chains of both mid and High density TSVs showing excellent yield for all TSV size and integration schemes.
Thierry Mourier,
Grenoble, Cedex

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