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Quasi Half-Loop Bond Wire Antennas for Emerging Wireless Communication and Radar Sensor Systems
Keywords: Package-integrated antenna, Bond wire antenna, mmWave and THz frequency bands
Emerging wireless communication and radar sensor systems have one strik-ing similarity: They both require larger channel bandwidths to meet the re- quirements and expectations of key applications which have a direct impact in our lives, society and economy. For example, applications requiring wire- less transmission of uncompressed ultra-high definition video, as is the case in remote medical diagnosis and surgery, or applications related to autono-mous sensing such as in self- driving cars, industrial machines and robots. Larger channel bandwidth leads to higher data rates in wireless communica-tion systems, and higher resolution of radar sensor systems. Since the fre-quency bands in the lower microwave spectrum are becoming overcrowded, most of the emerging wireless communication and radar sensor systems have been specified to operate in the millimeter-wave (mmWave) and terahertz (THz) frequency bands. The unused continuous bandwidth available in these bands is larger than that in the lower microwave band. One of the key com-ponents of wireless communication and radar sensor systems is the antenna. For emerging wireless communication and radar sensor systems to fully ex-ploit the bandwidth advantage of the mmWave and THz frequency spectrum, their antennas must be designed to be broadband and have higher gains. However designing planar antennas to operate in the mmWave and THz bands is a very challenging task. The losses of the substrate on which the an-tenna is fabricated are very high at these frequency bands, and may severely degrade the efficiency of the antenna, leading to poor gain. A conventional way to prevent this is to use high-end substrate technologies with low relative dielectric constants and low losses to fabricate mmWave and THz antennas. However, these high-end materials lead to an increase in the development cost of the antenna module and the entire system. A better alternative would be to use antennas whose characteristics are not strongly dependent on the substrate material. An example of such an antenna is a quasi- half loop bond wire antenna (QHL-BWA). In this work, we present a systematic approach for efficient modeling and design of QHL-BWAs for emerging wireless communication and radar sen- sor systems which operate in the mmWave and THz frequency bands. To illustrate our approach, we considered a 60 GHz QHL-BWA as an example. This antenna was modelled and simulated using Ansys HFSS. To verify the simulation results, test samples were designed, fabricated and measured. Ex-cellent correlation was obtained between measurement and simulation. The QHL-BWA is configured such that the return-current of its radiating wires flow on the reference plane directly beneath the wires. Hence, the die- lectric material beneath this plane is isolated from the return-current. There-fore, unlike planar antennas, the characteristics of QHL-BWAs are not heavi-ly dependent of the dielectric material of the substrate. Consequently, low-cost lossy substrate materials can be used for the fabrication of QHL-BWAs which operate in the mmWave and THz frequency bands. This could lead to a drastic reduction in the development cost of emerging wireless communica-tion and radar senor systems.
Ivan Ndip, Head of Department, RF & Smart Sensor Systems
Fraunhofer IZM
Berlin, Berlin

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