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IMAPS PDC Webinar Series on
Lead-free Electronics – Technology, Manufacturing & Reliability

This two-session on-line Professional Development Course (PDC) webinar was held:
Wednesday, March 18 and Wednesday, March 25, 2009

All webinars were held 12:00 noon - 1:00 pm EST

IMAPS Members: $125 per webinar; 2-course series $200
Non-members: $200 per webinar; 2-course series $375

Downloads Available Soon

Key Words

Lead-free alloys, lead-free solder joint reliability, lead-free package and assembly reliability, system reliability, SnPb vs. Pb-free, fatigue, creep, mechanical testing, microstructure, failure mechanisms, failure mode, solder joint surface crack, lead-free solder technology, lead-free production

Program Description

These 2 one-hour PDC lectures can be taken in total or separately depending on the experience level of the student and topics of interest.  Below is a course outline for each session.  Each session is scheduled for 50 minutes of lecture followed by 10 minutes of Q&A.

Session 1 of 2: Wednesday, March 18 -- 12:00-1:00 PM EST

On the tenth anniversary of lead-free implementation in electronics, this lecture provides a holistic view of the state-of-the-art lead-free technology, performance and reliability for both solder joints and assembly systems. A wide array of global production results and the product field service performance have been generated during the last decade. Some were deemed positive and some remain to be resolved, and test results may appear not all coinciding. Yet all product performance and test results manifest the criticality of sound practice. The lecture will highlight the sound practice in all key areas of lead-free electronics. Based on the presenter’s three textbooks: ”Environment-Friendly Electronics-Lead Free Technology” (Electrochemical Publ., Great Britain), “Lead-free Implementation—A Manufacturing Guide” (McGraw-Hills, U.S.A.) and "Modern Solder Technology for Competitive Electronics Manufacturing" (McGraw-Hill, U.S.A.), representative test results will be illustrated. Technology fundamentals in lead-free alloy design will also be summarized including the main differences between SnPb and Pb-free.

  • Industry trends vs. solder joint reliability
  • Lead-free solder technology – fundamentals and critical areas
  • Solder joint reliability – mechanical properties and microstructure evolution vs. services
  • Lead free system – solder joint, PCB/ceramic substrate and components
  • Differences and commonalties between SnPb and Pb-free systems
  • PCB surface finishes – options and impact on performance & reliability
  • Component coatings – options and impact on performance & reliability
  • Two most important production performance parameters
  • Production approaches and representative results
  • Production defects - types

Session 2 of 2: Wednesday, March 25 -- 12:00-1:00 PM EST

The second part of this lecture series will focus on the reliability of electronics packages and assemblies.

  • Likely failure processes and prevention – solder joint vs. system
  • Solder joint thermo-mechancial behavior and degradation – fatigue and creep interaction
  • Solder joint failures modes - interfacial, near-interfacial, bulk, inter-phase, intra-phase, voids-induced, surface-crack, and others
  • Solder joint failure mechanisms – ductile, brittle, ductile-brittle transition fracture
  • Testing solder joint reliability – discriminating tests and discerning parameters
  • Solder joint strengthening metallurgy for increased fatigue resistance and creep resistance
  • Solder joint microstructure evolution vs. strengthening
  • Thermal cycling conditions - effects on test results and results interpretation
  • System reliability including components, PCB/ceramic substrates
  • Reliability and performance in harsh environment – results, comparison, fundamentals, practices

Who Should Attend?

The lecture series provides a working knowledge to all who are involved with or interested in the production and reliability of Pb-free electronic packaging and assembling; also designed for those who desire the broad-based information including the underlying fundamental lead-free technology.

Thomas Green


Dr. Hwang, a pioneer and long-standing leader in lead-free electronics, brings her 29-year manufacturing experience combined with her sustained 19-year lead-free R&D and hands-on production implementation to this lecture. She has been a major contributor to the implementation of Surface Mount production since its inception through hands-on operation and as an advisor to OEMs, EMS and U.S. government. She has provided solutions to many challenging problems, ranging from production yield to field failure diagnosis to reliability issues. Her work covers both commercial and military applications including U.S. Dept. of Defense F-22 program. Among her many awards and honors are citations by the U.S. Congress, Honorary Doctoral degree, induction into WITI International Hall of Fame, named “R&D Star-to-Watch” by Industry Week; YWCA Women of Achievement Award; election to the National Academy of Engineering. She holds patents and has 300 publications to her credit, including the sole authorship of several internationally-used textbooks related to electronic packaging and assembly. Her books, columns, and publications have been widely cited worldwide. Dr. Hwang has been a frequent keynote/featured speaker at worldwide events (United States Patent and Trademark Office, Federal Women’s Program, numerous industry events). Over the years, she has lectured to more than 25,000 professionals and researchers in professional development courses. Her formal education includes Harvard Business School Executive Program and Ph.D. M.S., M.S., B.S. degrees in Materials & Metallurgical Engineering, Inorganic Chemistry, Liquid Crystals Science and Chemistry, respectively. She has held various senior executive positions with Lockheed Martin, SCM Corp, Sherwin Williams Co, and IEM Corp. She is currently a principal of H-Technologies Group, providing business and manufacturing solutions to the electronics industry. She is also an invited distinguished adj. Professor of Engineering School of Case Western Reserve University, and serves on the University’s Board of Trustees. Her books have received a wide circulation worldwide.

  • (ISBN-0-07-143048-2) “Lead-free Implementation: A Guide to Manufacturing” McGraw-Hill, New York, 2005
  • (ISBN-0 901 150 401) “Environment-Friendly Electronics—Lead Free Technology”, Electrochemical Publications, LTD, Great Britain, 2001
  • (ISBN-0-07-031749-3) "Modern Solder Technology for Competitive Electronics Manufacturing", , McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996
  • (ISBN-0-90-115029-0)"IC Ball Grid Array & Fine Pitch Peripheral Interconnections”, Electrochemical Publications, LTD, Great Britain, 1995
  • In Japanese, "Solder Paste: Technology and Applications for Surface Mount, Hybrid Circuits, and IC Component Manufacturing", Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1989
  • (ISBN-0442-2075-49) "Solder Paste: Technology and Applications for Surface Mount, Hybrid Circuits, and IC Component Manufacturing", Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1988

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