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IMAPS PDC Webinar Series on
Ball Grid Array Inspection Lead-Free Defect Guide

This two-session on-line Professional Development Course (PDC) webinar was held:
Tuesday, March 23 and Wednesday, March 24, 2010

All webinars were held 12:00 noon - 1:00 pm EST

IMAPS Members: $125 per webinar; 2-course series $200
Non-members: $200 per webinar; 2-course series $375 (includes one-year complimentary individual membership in IMAPS)

Registration Deadline: March 22, 2010

Key Words

Ball Grid Array, BGA, Lead-Free, Inspection, Area Array, LGA, CGA, Moisture Cracking, Defect Guide

Program Description

Course Introduction:
Area Array Technology is part of mainstream electronics but until recently very little inspection criteria were available in the industry. The assembly process for BGAs is fairly well understood for tin/lead alloys but with the move to lead-free assembly, new QFN and LGA packages there are critical issues to consider during inspection. The workshop covers optical and x-ray inspection of solder joints for both tin/lead and lead-free terminations. It includes an introduction to the lead-free assembly process with specific attention to BGA and area array devices. It provided a step by step guide to the procedure of inspection for optical and x-ray showing you how to do it. Inspection criteria are included for x-ray and visual criteria on different lead-free terminations and pad surfaces.

Delegates will each receive a set of BGA optical and x-ray inspection posters, chance to win a copy of a interactive CD-ROM covering BGA Inspection and Lead-Free Defects and a copy of “X-Ray Inspection Criteria & Common Defect Analysis” a book Bob co-authored with Dr David Bernard of DAGE.

Topics will include:

  • Modern Lead-Free Assembly Processes
  • Lead-free Alloys - BGA – Area Array – Land Grid Array Reflow
  • Inspection Techniques
  • Inspection Procedures - Optical Inspection - X-Ray Inspection
  • Plastic BGA, Ceramic BGA, Column Grid Array, Land Grid Arrays
  • Moisture cracking
  • Effect of incorrect profiling
  • Dye crack testing (Dye and Pry)
  • Common process problems
  • Lead-free and tin/lead paste
  • Defect Guide
  • Inspection Criteria

Who Should Attend:
All staff involved in the process of area array soldering with tin/lead and lead-free BGA assembly processes; including procurement, design engineers, reliability, quality personnel, failure analysts, and management involving is setting standards, inspection and product assessment of boards containing BGA, CSP, LGA and other area array components. As this workshop deals with many of the common issues in manufacture its also valuable to shop floor staff.

Bob Willis


Bob Willis currently operates training and consultancy business based in England and has created one of the largest collections of interactive training material in the industry. Although a specialist for companies implementing lead-free manufacture Mr Willis provides world wide consultancy in most areas of electronic manufacture over the last 25 years. This is based on working in manufacture with contract assembly, printed board manufacture and environmental test facilities. This has recently eared him the SOLDERTEC/Tin Technology Global Lead-Free Award for his contribution to the industry. He has also been presented with the SMTA International Leadership Award.

He has worked with the GEC Technical Directorate as Surface Mount Co-Ordinator for both the Marconi and GEC group of companies and prior to that he was Senior Process Control Engineer with Marconi Communication Systems. Following his time with GEC he became Technical Director of an electronics contract manufacturing company where he formed a successful training and consultancy division. Over the years Bob has been Chairman and Technical Director of the SMART Group and holds the title of Honorary Life Vice President for his contributions to the group since its inception. SMTA, Surface Mount Technology Association recently presented Bob with their 2008 International Leadership Award for continued contribution to industry. Bob is also due to accept an IPC Committee Award for contribution to their standards.

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